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Mongolian culture


Population and language


trading online con euro Population

Over 1.6 million square kilometers (618,000 square miles), Mongolia is the sixth-largest country in Asia and 18th in the world with population of 2.9 million, which makes Mongolia one of the least densely populated areas in Asia. Approximately, half the population resides in the capital city, Ulaanbaatar so that leaves lots of room for you to travel in the outback. Of course, Gobi is even less dense. Almost another 40% of population are scattered all over Mongolia with their 60 million head of sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels following a pattern of nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralism. In the last two decades, the population of Ulaanbaatar has been rapidly increasing as a result of in-migration from the rural areas and from the provincial centers. Meantime, some proportion of Ulaanbaatar residents move away from the city as Mongolian foreign relations and international cooperation have widened since 1990, Mongolians migrate abroad to study or work. The country, which only 20 years ago used to screen anyone who was travelling abroad, today has the most travelled people in the world - some 300,000 Mongolians travel abroad each year according to survey in 2006. As for foreigners, in an average month, the Office of Naturalization and Immigration Services issues 2,000 visas to foreign citizens. The office also issues about 800 visa permissions, 500 new residency permits and 200 invitations in the same period. At present there are 2,258 immigrants, 912 permanent residents, 746 extended period residents and 82 non-Mongolian citizens in Mongolia.


70% of Mongolia is under the age of 35. The gender ratio is 1:1. Ethnicity: 84% Khalkha Mongols, 6% Kazakhs and 10% other groups. Most common religion is Buddhism and in the last few years, Shamanism is becoming more common. Christianity has evolved from the 1990s gaining popularity in young generation and about 6% of the people follow Islam, those who are Kazakh ethnic and we have some big proportion of atheists.

Old Mongol Script

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Official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian spoken by 90% of total population. Khalkha is written with Cyrillic alphabet. In western part of the country, the Kazakh and Tuvan languages, among others, are also spoken. Russian is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia, followed by English, though English has been gradually replacing Russian as the second language and is widely spoken in the cities. Recently, Mongolia changed its primary foreign language to be English, seeing not only as a way of communicating but as a way of opening windows on the wider world. Korean has been gaining popularity as tens of thousands of Mongolians study and work in South Korea. As the language of the south neighboring country, interest in Chinese has been growing lately. Japanese is also popular among the younger people. A number of older educated Mongolians speak some German, as they studied in the former East Germany, while a few speak other languages from the former Eastern Bloc. Besides that, many younger Mongolians are fluent in the Western European languages as they study or work in foreign countries including Germany, France, Spain, Italy etc.


What do you imagine about Mongolia?




Now that I have had some time to process my amazing journey with you through the Discover Mongolia tour and I would like to write to thank you for a totally engaging experience. . .

Washington D.C

   Mrs. Margaret Hadley

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